The Government of Gujarat has announced the Mahatma Gandhi Swachhta Mission with a view of achieving “Open defecation free cities and villages”. The objective is to materialize the dream of Mahatma Gandhi that all cities, towns and villages should become clean, have full sewerage system, health and life of citizens may become good and the people living in cities, towns and villages may get clean environment.
Similarly, the Swachh Bharat Mission was launched at the national level on Oct 02, 2014 by the Government of India. The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), a joint mission of the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWSS), emanates from the vision of the Government articulated in the President’s address to the Joint Session of the Parliament on 9th June 2014
“We must not tolerate the indignity of homes without toilets and public spaces littered with garbage. For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a “Swachh Bharat Mission” will be launched. This will be our tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019.”
SBM is being implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (M/o HUA) for urban areas.
Mission (SBM) Objective:
- Elimination of open defecation
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging
- Modern and Scientific Municipal Solid Waste Management
- To effect behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices
- Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
- Capacity Augmentation for ULBs to create an enabling environment for private sector participation in Capex (capital expenditure) and Opex (operation and maintenance)
- Household toilets, including conversion of insanitary latrines into sanitary latrines.
The Government of Gujarat recognizes the importance of individual toilets at the household level and improved access to functional toilets in all public areas as well as government departments and premises. The Government also recognizes the importance of safe disposal of waste water through sewered or on-site waste water treatment systems (OSS) such as septic tanks-soak pits or twin pit system.
As far as possible, the urban local bodies will strive to provide individual toilets to households that currently do not have access. Only in special cases where there are constraints of space availability, shared toilets will be provided. Shared toilets would be provided in lieu of community toilet blocks.
ULBs should provide community level shared toilet in case individual toilets are not possible due to space constraints. These can be provided for urban households residing in slums, slum-like areas, authorized/ un-authorized colonies and urban villages (gamtals) and who either do not have an individual toilet.
All shared toilet will have either an underground sewer connection or an OSS, irrespective of the tenure status of the land on which such households are situated. Community level shared toilets maybe provided in a cluster of up to 2-3 seats. Each seat will be provided to designated 3-4 households known to each other, who would maintain the toilet.
Government of Gujarat believes that community toilets lack ownership by the community and hence are not maintained and vandalized. Community toilets are not “improved sanitation and hence, new community toilet blocks will not be constructed under MGSM. However, until provision of individual or shared toilets to all households is ensured, repair and retrofitting of existing community toilets will be funded by MGSM. It will be the responsibility of the respective ULB to ensure operations and maintenance of community facilities.
- Public toilets and urinals:
All Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) should ensure adequate public toilets in all public places that attract floating population including but not limited to gardens, play grounds, exhibition grounds, chowks, markets, transit nodes, streets, highways with appropriate gender considerations (number of seats, design and operations). Based on guidelines of the Swachh Bharat Mission, floating population is assumed at 5 percent of the total urban population.
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is one of the mandatory functions of Urban Local Bodies across Gujarat. Solid waste management value chain refers to a management system for segregation of the waste generated at various sources, collection of waste, and transportation of waste for secondary level segregation followed by scientific processing and recycling of various waste streams. The waste which cannot be recycled or treated is sent to scientific landfill for disposal.
A key strategy under SBM (Urban) is behavior change communication to ensure that sanitation as an issue is mainstreamed with the general public at large and should cover issues of open defecation, prevention of manual scavenging, hygiene practices, proper use and maintenance of
toilet facilities (household, community or otherwise), etc., and its related health and environmental consequences.
- Capacity building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE):
States shall propose extensive capacity building activities to be implemented in a mission mode manner, which will enable the progressive achievement of objectives of SBM (Urban) in a time-bound manner. These will be specified in the comprehensive annual action plan prepared by each state. This will be approved by State Level High Power Committee after sharing and considering suggestions from MoHUA. At least 50% of this fund, in each annual plan, as approved by State HPC, must go to the ULB’s for activities at the ULB level.